Table of Contents
THE ILIAD SUMMARY BY HOMER
AN INTRODUCTION TO THE POET:
Homer is traditionally held to be the author of the ancient Greek epic poems The Tad and The Odyssey widely thought to be the first extant works of Western literature. He is considered by many to be the earliest and most important of all the Greek writers, and the progenitor of the whole Western literary tradition. He was a poetic pioneer who stood at a pivotal point in the evolution of Greek society from pre-literate to literate, from a century old bardic tradition of oral verse to the then new technique of alphabetic writing. Some maintain that the Homeric poems are dependent on an oral tradition, a generations-old technique that was the collective inheritance of many singer-poets. The Greek alphabet was introduced in the early 8th Century BCE, so it is possible that Homer himself (if indeed he was a single, real person) was one of the first generation of authors who were also literate. At any rate, it seems likely that Homer’s poems were recorded shortly after the invention of the Greek alphabet, and third-party references to The Had appear as early as about 740 BCE.
The language used by Homer is an archaic version of Ionic Greek, with admixtures from certain other dialects such as Aeolic Greek. It later served as the basis of Epic Greek, the language of epic poetry, typically written in dactylic hexameter verse.
AN INTRODUCTION TO THE EPIC:
Trojan Paris seduced Menelaus’s wife Helen and took her back to Ilium. Menelaus appealed to his brother Agamemnon, and together they raised an expedition to bring her back. The Iliad is set in the last year of the Greek siege of Ilium and begins with a quarrel. Heroes are of such stature that they sometimes provoke envy from the gods and on occasion may even fight with a god. Each hero is distinguished by a virtue but may also have an accompanying vice. For example, Achilles is the greatest warrior, but he is also petulant and self-centred. In terms of status, heroes are below the gods but above the ordinary warriors.
The story of the Iliad has its actual beginning in the creation of the great wall at Troy. The Trojans enlisted the aid of the sea god, Poseidon, to help build the wall. However, after the wall was constructed, Poseidon demanded his just compensation, but the Trojans reneged. Consequently, Troy was without divine protection and, in fact, Poseidon became its enemy.
PLAGUE AND WRATH :
Assembly: a group of persons gathered together, usually for a particular purpose, whether religious, political, educational, or social.
Booty: something that is seized by violence and robbery.
Drunkard: a habitual drinker of alcohol who is frequently intoxicated Doe: a female deer, especially a female roe, fallow deer, or reindeer.
Ilium: Troy; a town in the region of Troy (modern north-west Turkey) Invocation: a prayer asking for God’s help
Ransom: the redemption of a prisoner or kidnapped person, of captured goods, etc., for a price.
Compensation: something, typically money, awarded to someone in recognition of loss, suffering, or injury.
Supplication: the act of asking a god or someone who is in a position of power for something in a humble way:
Plague: to cause worry, pain, or difficulty to someone or something over a period of time:
Infuriate:make (someone) extremely angry and impatient.
Black sheep: a member of a family or group who is regarded as a disgrace to it. Auburn: (of hair) of a reddish-brown colour.
Sceptre: a decorated stick that is carried by a queen or king during some official ceremonies as a symbol of their authority.
Lyre: an ancient musical instrument consisting of a U-shaped frame with strings attached to it.
Allies: combines or unites a resource or commodity with another for mutual benefit. Council: an advisory, deliberative, or administrative body of people formally constituted and meeting regularly.
Counsel: give advice to someone.
Catalogue of Ships: list of Greek kings and their countries in Book II. This listing of a group of warriors, countries, or other items is a relatively common epic device. Cebriones one of Priam’s bastard sons, killed by Achilles.
Charioteer: the driver of a chariot. The fighter was not responsible for driving, only for fighting.
Horses’ hooves: the horny covering encasing the foot in certain animals, as the ox and horse.
Morale: the confidence, enthusiasm, and discipline of a person or group at a particular nime.
Marshalled: assembled and arranged (a group of people, especially troops) in order Transfixed:pierced with a sharp implement or weapon
Muse: in Greek and Roman mythology each of nine goddesses, the daughters of Zeus and Mnemosyne. Muse preside over the arts and sciences.
Mycenae Achaian kingdom of Agamemnon. Mycenae was probably the most amous of all the Greek kingdoms.
Myrmidons soldiers commanded by Achilles.
Nereids: daughters of the sea-God, Nereus.
Niobe Phrygian woman whose twelve children were killed by Apollo and Artemis Niobe is usually associated with mourning and weeping. Olympion-born: it means born of a god.
Olympion – bred: it means brought up by a god.
Son of: it is especially popular phrase in an epic. ‘Son of’ is very often used in the Iliad as we come across the phrases like ‘Zeus as the son of Cronus’, ‘Achillese as the son of Peleus’, ‘Agamemnon and Menelaus asthe Atreus’. Humans can even be credited with a divine father or mother, a high compliment.
Zeus: Zeusis the son of Cronus. He is a god of who drives the storm and cloud. He is the rulergod of sky and thunder in ancient Greek religion, who rules as king of the gods of Mount Olympus.
BOOK – I
The poet invokes a muse to aid him in telling the story of the rage of Achilles, the greatest Greek hero to fight in the Trojan War. The narrative begins nine years after the start of the war, as the Achaeans sack a Trojan-allied town and capture two beautiful maidens, Chryseis and Briseis. Agamemnon, commander-in-chief of the Achaean army, takes Chryseis as his prize. Achilles, one of the Achaeans’ most valuable warriors, claims Briseis. Chryseis’s father, a man named Chryses who serves as a priest of the god Apollo, begs Agamemnon to return his daughter and offers to pay an enormous ransom. When Agamemnon refuses, Chryses prays to Apollo for help.
Apollo sends a plague upon the Greek camp, causing the death of many soldiers. After ten days of suffering, Achilles calls an assembly of the Achaean army and asks for a soothsayer to reveal the cause of the plague. Calchas, a powerful seer, stands up and offers his services. Though he fears retribution from Agamemnon, Calchas reveals the plague as a vengeful and strategic move by Chryses and Apollo. Agamemnon flies into a rage and says that he will return Chryseis only if Achilles gives him Briseis as compensation.
Agamemnon’s demand humiliates and infuriates the proud Achilles. The men argue, and Achilles threatens to withdraw from battle and take his people, the Myrmidons, back home to Phthia. Agamemnon threatens to go to Achilles’ tent in the army’s camp and take Briseis himself. Achilles stands poised to draw his sword and kill the Achaean commander when the goddess Athena, sent by Hera, the queen of the gods, appears to him and checks his anger. Athena’s guidance, along with a speech by the wise advisor Nestor, finally succeeds in preventing the duel.
That night, Agamemnon puts Chryseis on a ship back to her father and sends heralds to have Briseis escorted from Achilles’ tent. Achilles prays to his mother, the sea-nymph Thetis, to ask Zeus, king of the gods, to punish the Achaeans. He relates to her the tale of his quarrel with Agamemnon, and she promises to take the matter up with Zeus-who owes her a favour-as soon as he returns from a thirteen-day period of feasting with the Aethiopians. Meanwhile, the Achaean commander Odysseus is navigating the ship that Chryseis has boarded. When he lands, he returns the maiden and makes sacrifices to Apollo. Chryses, overjoyed to see his daughter, prays to the god to lift the plague from the Achaean camp. Apollo acknowledges his prayer, and Odysseus returns to his comrades.
But the end of the plague on the Achaeans only marks the beginning of worse suffering. Ever since his quarrel with Agamemnon, Achilles has refused to participate in battle, and, after twelve days, Thetis makes her appeal to Zeus, as promised. Zeus is reluctant to help the Trojans, for his wife, Hera, favors the Greeks, but he finally agrees. Hera becomes livid when she discovers that Zeus is helping the Trojans, but her son Hephaestus persuades her not to plunge the gods into conflict over the mortals.
CRITICAL ANALYSIS ON BOOK-I:
Like other ancient epic poems, The Iliad presents its subject clearly from the outset. Indeed, the poem names its focus in its opening word: menin, or “rage.” Specifically, The Iliad concerns itself with the rage of Achilles-how it begins, how it cripples the Achaean army, and how it finally becomes redirected toward the Trojans. Although the Trojan War as a whole figure prominently in the work, this larger conflict ultimately provides the text with background rather than subject matter. By the time Achilles and Agamemnon enter their quarrel, the Trojan War has been going on for nearly ten years. Achilles’ absence from battle, on the other hand, lasts only a matter of days, and the epic ends soon after his return. The poem describes neither the origins nor the end of the war that frames Achilles’ wrath. Instead, it scrutinizes the origins and the end of this wrath, thus narrowing the scope of the poem from a larger conflict between warring peoples to a smaller one between warring individuals.
But while the poem focuses most centrally on the rage of a mortal, it also concerns itself greatly with the motivations and actions of the gods. Even before Homer describes the quarrel between Achilles and Agamemnon, he explains that Apollo was responsible for the conflict. In general, the gods in the poem participate in mortal affairs in two ways. First, they act as external forces upon the course of events, as when Apollo sends the plague upon the Achaean army. Second, they represent internal forces acting on individuals, as when Athena, the goddess of wisdom, prevents Achilles from abandoning all reason and persuades him to cut Agamemnon with words and insults rather than his sword. But while the gods serve a serious function in partially determining grave matters of peace and violence, life and death, they also serve one final function — that of comic relief. Their intrigues, double-dealings, and inane squabbles often appear humorously petty in comparison with the wholesale slaughter that pervades the mortal realm. The bickering between Zeus and Hera, for example, provides a much lighter parallel to the heated exchange between Agamemnon and Achilles.
Indeed, in their submission to base appetites and shallow grudges, the gods often seem more prone to human folly than the human characters themselves es promises to help the Trojans not out of any profound moral consideration but ther because he owes Thetis a favour. Similarly, his hesitation in making this promise s not from some worthy desire to let fate play itself out but from his fear of annoying wife. When Hera does indeed become annoyed, Zeus is able to silence her only by Areatening to strangle her. Such instances of partisanship, hurt feelings, and domestic ante, common among the gods of The Iliad, portray the gods and goddesses as less vincible and imperturbable than we might imagine them to be. We expect these sorts excessive sensitivities and occasionally dysfunctional relationships of the human haracters but not the divine ones. 4 most dominant of The Aspects deserves The clash between Achilles and Agamemnon highlights one of the of the ancient Greek value system: the vital importance of personal honor. Both gamemnon and Achilles prioritize their respective individual glories over the welleing of the Achaean forces. Agamemnon believes that, as chief of the Achacan forces, he the highest available prize-Briseis-and is thus willing to antagonize Achilles, the most crucial Achaean warrior, to secure what he believes is properly owed to him. Achilles would rather defend his claim to Briseis, his personal spoil of victory and thus what he believes is properly owed to him, than defuse the situation. Each man considers deferring to the other a humiliation rather than an act of honor or duty; each thus puts his own interest ahead of that of his people, jeopardizing the war effort.
SUMMARY OFBOOK-II :
To help the Trojans, as promised, Zeus sends a false dream to Agamemnon a figure in the form of Nestor persuades Agamemnon that he can take Troy if he launches a full-scale assault on the city’s walls. The next day, Agamemnon gathers his troops for attack, but to test their courage, he lies and tells them that he has decided to give up the war and return to Greece. To his dismay, they eagerly run to their ships.
When Hera sees the Achaeans fleeing, she alerts Athena, who inspires Odysseus, the most eloquent of the Achaeans, to call the men back. He shouts words of encouragement and insult goad their pride and restore their confidence. He reminds them of the prophecy that the soothsayer Calchas gave when the Achaeans were first mustering their soldiers back in Greece: a water snake had slithered to shore and devoured a nest of nine sparrows, and Calchas interpreted the sign to mean that nine years would pass before the Achaeans would finally take Troy. As Odysseus reminds them, they vowed at that time that they would not abandon their struggle until the city fell. clan so
Nestor now encourages Agamemnon to arrange his troops by city and that they can fight side by side with their friends and kin. The poet takes this opportunity to enter into a catalogue of the army. After invoking the muses to aid his memory, he details the cities that have contributed troops to the Greek cause, the number of troops that each has contributed, and who leads each contingent. At the end of the list, the poet singles out the bravest of the Achaeans, Achilles and Ajax among them. When Zeus sends a messenger to the Trojan court, telling them of the Greeks’ awesome formation, the Trojans muster their own troops under the command of Priam’s son Hector. The poet then catalogues the Trojan forces.
CRITICAL ANALYSIS ON BOOK-II:
Homer has introduced all of The Iliad’s major characters on the Greek side-his catalogue of the Trojan troops at the end of Book II leads naturally into an introduction of the Trojan leadership in Book 3. The poem has already established the characters of Agamemnon, proud and headstrong, and Achilles, mighty but temperamental, whose quarrel dominates the epic. Now the poet provides description of two supporting actors, Odysseus and Nestor. Though both of these figures appear in Book I, the army’s flight to its ships in Book II motivates their first important speeches and thus establishes a crucial component of their role in the epic: they are the wise, foresighted advisors whose shrewdness and clarity of mind will keep the Achaeans on their course. Furthermore, in successfully restoring the troops’ morale, Odysseus and Nestor confirm their reputation as the Achaeans’ most talented rhetoricians.
In addition to prompting the speeches of Odysseus and Nestor, the Achaeans flight to the ships serves three other important purposes in the narrative. First, it shows just how dire the Greek situation has become: even the army’s foremost leader, Agamemnon, has failed to recognize the low morale of the troops; he is wholly blindsided by his men’s willingness to give up the war. The eagerness with which the troops flee back to the harbour not only testifies to the suffering that they must have already endured but also bodes ill for their future efforts, which will prove much harder given the soldiers’ homesickness and lack of motivation. But second, and on the other hand, by pointing out the intensity of the Greeks’ suffering, the episode emphasizes the glory of the Greeks’ eventual victory. Homer’s audience knew well that the war between the Greeks and Trojans ended in Troy’s defeat. This episode indicates just how close the Greek army came to abandoning the effort entirely and returning to Greece in disgrace. That the troops prove able to rise from the depths of despair to the heights of military triumph conveys the immensity of the Greek achievement.
Third, the flight to the ships indirectly results in the famous catalogue of the Achaean forces. Nestor’s advice that the troops be arranged by city ensures that the soldiers will be motivated: by fighting side by side with their closest friends, they will have an emotional investment in the army’s success, and their leaders will more easily be able to identify them as either cowardly or courageous. While the catalogue of forces may seem rather tedious to modern readers-though it does build tension by setting up an all-out conflict-it would have greatly inspired Homeric audiences. Even the effort seemingly necessary to recount the catalogue is epic and grandiose. The poet seems to invoke all nine Muses as he proclains, “The mass of troops I could never tally …/ not even if I had ten tongues and ten mouths” (2.577-578). The sack of Troy was a Panhellenic effort, and even the smallest cities played a part. Each Greek who heard the tale could take pride in hearing the name of his city and its ancient, mythic leaders mentioned as participants in this heroic achievement. By calling these men to mind, Homer doesn’t bore his audience but rather stirs them, evoking their honourable heritage.
CHARACTERS IN THE ILIAD
The greatest warrior in the Achaian army. The Iliad is about the Trojan War, but it primarily about the war as it is affected by Achilles’ wrath, or anger. Achilles is the in character, and his inaction, or withdrawal from the fighting, is crucial to the plot. is a complex warrior who sometimes ignores the cultural norms of his society cause he sees through some of its fallacies – in particular, he sees many of the faults the often narrow and contradictory heroic code. Achilles is also the greatest warrior nd fighter among the Achaians. He is vulnerable (except on the heel) because his nother dipped him in the River Styx as a baby. Furthermore, no warrior comes close to ing his equal as a fighter.
Achilles has a strong sense of social order that in the beginning, manifests itself in us concern for the disorder in the Achaian camp; a deadly plague is destroying the oldiers, and Achilles wants to know the reason why. His king, Agamemnon, will not ct, so Achilles decides to act: He calls for an assembly of the entire army. In doing this, Achilles upsets the order of protocol; only Agamemnon can decide to call an assembly, ut Achilles does so to try to return order to the Achaian camp. He succeeds, partially. He finds out why the plague is killing hundreds of Achaian soldiers, but in the process, e creates disorder when it is revealed that Agamemnon is responsible for the deadly lague. Thus, Achilles’ attempt to return order to the Achaian camp does little, ultimately, to establish order. Apollo lifts the plague, but after Achilles withdraws umself and his troops from the Achaian army, disorder still remains among the Achaians.
The Greek warrior Agamemnon, king of Mycenae, is the brother of Menelaus and the leader of the Greek forces in the Trojan War. He raised a coalition of Greek forces to ay siege to Troy in order to secure the return of Menelaus’ wife Helen after her abduction by the Trojan Paris.
Agamemnon inherited the role of king from his father, and his community expects him, as king, to stabilize society, arbitrate disputes, and call council meetings and assemblies. He is also commander-in-chief of the armies. Both Odysseus and old Nestor (two of his commanders) attempt to maintain Agamemnon’s authority because they recognize that supporting Agamemnon is the only way to ensure an effective and meaningful policy of order. Agamemnon is, after all, the king and their leader.
Yet despite that Agamemnon is king and has enormous power and social position, he is not necessarily the best qualified for the role. Old Nestor frequently advises Agamemnon because Agamemnon needs counsel. Almost immediately, the reader sees that Agamemnon often allows his over-wrought emotions to govern major, critical decisions. Nestor advises Agamemnon against taking Briseis from Achilles, but Agamemnon doesn’t listen, thereby setting up a chain of events that results in the deaths of hundreds of Achaian soldiers.
Homer uses Odysseus’ stability and maturity as a foil to both Achilles and Agamemnon. There is no character development in Odysseus, but his purpose in The Iliad does not call for dramatic character development. His purpose is to show us strong demonstrations of tact, strategic ability, and heroic capability, all of which are qualities that a king should have. Additionally, Homer also shows Odysseus’ ability to advise. Above all, Odysseus exhibits self-control, and a lack of self-control is alarmingly apparent in both Achilles and Agamemnon. It is also obvious that Odysseus has greater kingly qualifications than Agamemnon because his decisions are almost always sound and successful when followed. He is always rational and diplomatic. As one of Agamemnon’s ambassadors to Achilles, Odysseus presents Agamemnon’s offers. But accept the offers, Odysseus does not argue with Achilles. He knows that arguing with Achilles is useless, and by arguing, he may defeat the purpose of the mission and force Achilles into an even stronger position of alienation from the Achaian forces. Further, when confronted with Achilles’ angry desire to rush into battle after the death of Patroklos, Odysseus calmly argues that the army must eat first. Homer almost always refers to Odysseus as the “great tactician” and it is Odysseus who eventually comes up with the stratagem of the Trojan Horse that wins the war. when Achilles refuses
Priam: King of Troy and husband of Hecuba, Priam is the father of fifty Trojan warriors, including Hector and Paris. Though too old to fight, he has earned the respect of both the Trojans and the Achaeans by virtue of his level-headed, wise, and benevolent rule. He treats Helen kindly, though he laments the war that her beauty has sparked.
Paris: The Trojan prince Paris is the son of king Priam and queen Hecuba. At the wedding of Peleus and Thetis the goddess Eris (‘Strife’) rolled an apple marked for the fairest’ down the aisle; the goddesses Hera, Athena and Aphrodite quarrelled over who should receive the title, and Zeus entrusted the decision to Paris. Each goddess offered him a prize – he chose Aphrodite, who had offered him Helen of Sparta, the most beautiful woman in the world, who was already married to Menelaus. It was Paris’s abduction of Helen which started the Trojan War.
Nestor: King of Pylos and the oldest Achaean commander. Although age has taken much of Nestor’s physical strength, it has left him with great wisdom. He often acts as an advisor to the military commanders, especially Agamemnon. Nestor and Odysseus are the Achaeans’ most deft and persuasive orators, although Nestor’s speeches are sometimes long-winded.
Hermes: Hermes is an Olympian deity in ancient Greek religion and mythology. Hermes is considered the herald of the gods. He is also considered the protector of human heralds, travellers, thieves, merchants, and orators.
Patroclus: Achilles’ beloved friend, companion, and advisor, Patroclus grew up alongside the great warrior in Phthia, under the guardianship of Peleus. Devoted to both Achilles and the Achaean cause, Patroclus stands by the enraged Achilles but also dons Achilles’ terrifying armour in an attempt to hold the Trojans back.
Achilles’ father and the grandson of Zeus. Although his name often appears in e epic, Peleus never appears in person. Priam powerfully invokes the memory of eleus when he convinces Achilles to return Hector’s corpse to the Trojans in ook 24.Patroclus is the close friend and lifelong companion of Achilles. When Achilles sents himself from the fighting at Troy, Patroclus pretends to be Achilles by wearing is armour. He is killed by the Trojan Hector.
Helen: Helen is said to be the most beautiful woman in the world, and is the wife of Menelaus, king of Sparta. The divine Aphrodite offers Helen to Paris, prince of Troy, as prize for judging her the fairest of the goddesses; Paris’ abduction of Helen is the atalyst for the Trojan War.
The Greek hero Menelaus is a Spartan king and the husband of Helen, whom Paris arried off to Troy. It was this abduction which led to the Trojan War.
Briseis is a captive princess, taken and enslaved by the Greek forces in the course of the Trojan War and awarded to Achilles as a prize for his role in the fighting. When, at the wish of the god Apollo, Agamemnon has to return his own concubine Chryseis to her ather, he steals Briseis from Achilles. It is this affront to his honour which leads to Achilles’ anger, the theme of the Iliad
Thetis is Achilles’ mother, and an immortal sea nymph.
Zeus is the king of the Olympian gods and father of gods and men’ His wife is the goddess Hera.
Hector is the greatest Trojan warrior, brother to Paris, and the eldest son of Priam and Hecuba. He is married to Andromache and they have a baby son, Astvanax In the Iliad he kills Achilles’ companion Patroclus, Achilles takes revenge by slaying Hector Hephaestus is the lame blacksmith and craftsman god who fashions new armour for Achilles in the Iliad.
Priam king of Troy, is married to Hecuba and in the Iliad is an old man. He is said to be the father of fifty sons and many daughters his sons include Hector and Paris Aphrodite is the goddess of love In the lad Paris is one of her favourites She is responsible for having engineered the abduction of Helen from Sparta to Troy by prince Paris this is what caused the Trojan War
The goddess Athena is the daughter of Zeus and Metis (Wisdom personified) she is associated with strategic thinking, tactical warfare and handicrafts. In the fuld she supports Achilles and the Greeks and the King of Ithica, Odysseus who joined in the Greek expedition to Troy, leaving his wife Penelope and intant son Telemachus behind Troy also known as llum (the Latinised form of the Greek Ilion) is the home of the Trojans, and an ancient city famous in mythical tales relating to the Trojan War Its site has been identified as Hisarlik, in modern Turkey where evidence of several cities built in succession has been unearthed since the first excavations conducted there by Heinrich Schliemann in the late nineteenth century .
The Greeks: The Greeks are referred to in the lhad either Achaeans Danaans or Argives, rather than by the term Greeks in the collective sense in the Iliad the Greek army as led by Agamemnon, king of Mycenae each contingent has its own leader and originates from a different geographical region
THE ILIAD SUMMARY BY HOMER THE ILIAD SUMMARY BY HOMERTHE ILIAD SUMMARY BY HOMERTHE ILIAD SUMMARY BY HOMERTHE ILIAD SUMMARY BY HOMERTHE ILIAD SUMMARY BY HOMERTHE ILIAD SUMMARY BY HOMERTHE ILIAD SUMMARY BY HOMERVTHE ILIAD SUMMARY BY HOMERTHE ILIAD SUMMARY BY HOMER
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